Kamis, 09 Juli 2015
paket wisata lombok Earrings are jewelry attached to the ear. The material can be of metal, plastic, glass, precious stones, beads, and others. Earrings word commonly used to refer to some kind of ear jewelery are actually different types: Earrings are pendants that hang on the ear lobe. Earring jewelry ear shape is round and flat. Earring studs are small in size. Kerabu is thin earrings made of gold. tour lombok Ancient times in many places in the world are wearing earring could be male or female. But now we use a norm that comes from the west, where the earring is diapakai jewelry for women. Lately earrings worn also by men in part, but it is usually the man who is seen wearing odd earring or mischievous. Girl with the Pearl Earring Earrings paket wisata lombok Girl with the Pearl Earring Earring (Dutch: Het Meisje met de Parel or English: "Girl with a Pearl Earring") is one of the paintings Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer's masterpiece. As written in the title, this is the center of attention painting pearl earring worn girl. Now this painting is kept in the gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague. This painting is sometimes called the Mona Lisa of the North or "the Dutch Mona Lisa". paket tour lombok Vermeer newer literature says this painting as a painting or a definition tronie Dutch 17th century for painting faces / heads are not intended as a portrait. After the painting was restored in 1994, a subtle color scheme and the intimacy of the girl's eyes had been successfully strengthened.  When restored, background dark (although it now looks somewhat mottled) known painter originally intended to dark green. This effect resulting from the review thick transparent layer of paint called the glaze, on a black background that looks right now. However, two organic pigment of glaze green, indigo and weld faded. genuine pearls mutiara lombok In general, knowledge of Vermeer and his works are very little. The painting is signed as "IVMeer" but not given a number of years. This painting is probably the work done by other painters, but unknown artist. The possibility of this painting is meant as a conventional portrait. On the advice of Victor de Stuers which for many years trying to prevent rare works of Vermeer sold to parties abroad, Arnoldus Andries des Tombe purchased this painting from an auction in The Hague in 1881 for two guilders and thirty cents. At that time, the painting is in a severe state. December Tombe has no heir and donate this painting along with other paintings to the Mauritshuis in 1902. harga mutiara jewelry emasPada 1937, a similar painting titled Smiling Girl precisely that time was estimated to be the work of Vermeer, was donated by collector Andrew W. Mellon to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC The painting is now widely accepted as forgeries. Vermeer expert Arthur Wheelock named in his study in 1995 concluded that the painting as a work of 20th century artist named Theo van Wijngaarden, also known as the forger of paintings. Wijngaarden friends with Han van Meegeren. harga mutiara Tracy Chevalier wrote a historical novel of the same name also, Girl with a Pearl Earring (1999). It contained a fictitious incident when this painting was made. In the novel, Johannes close contact with fictitious maid named Griet (The character was inspired by a close friend of Chevalier named Georgia Kendall). The waiter was hired as an assistant Vermeer, and posed as a model painting while wearing an earring earrings Mrs Vermeer. This novel later became the inspiration for a movie of the same name, Girl with a Pearl Earring in 2003, and a play of the same name in 2008. The film was produced in 2003, starring Scarlett Johansson as the girl who wore earrings mutira. Griet. Johansson was nominated as the recipient of numerous awards, including a Golden Globe Award and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor Category Artist Main. lombok tour
In some of history mentioned hadith that the Prophet wearing a ring. At first the Prophet wearing a ring made of gold before the ban on the wearing of gold for the men. Among some of the history that is what was mentioned by Imam Malik in his book 'al-Muwatta', from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Prophet never wore a ring of gold then the Prophet throw it and he said, "I'm not going to wear it forever." Then the man who watched at that moment was to throw their rings. In the hadith narrated from Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah rings made of silver and stones (cinicin) it is Habasyi stone. "(HR. Muslim) The shape of the ring of the Prophet as mentioned Ibnul Qoyyim that on his return he saw from Hudaybiyah then he saw wrote to the king on earth brought by the courier. When he was about to write a letter to the king of the Holy Roman then said to him, "Surely they will not read a letter unless bore (stamp)." Then he saw made cincinya made of silver contained thereon carving consists of three lines. Muhammad on one line, the Apostle on one line, and God in one line. He also stamped letters sent to the kings with him, and sent six people in one day in the month of Ramadan the year 7 H. (Zaadul Ma'ad, I juz it 119-120). Within a hadith narrated from Muhammad ibn Ishaq said, "I watched shalt ash bin Abdullah bin Nawfal bin Abdul Mutthallib wear a ring on the little finger of the right." So I said, "What is this? 'He replied,' I never saw Ibn Abbas wearing ring like this and make the section of the outer ring of stone. 'He said,' It is not Ibnu Abas believe it unless he mentions that the Prophet wearing a ring like that. "(HR. Abu Daud) Al Mundziri said, "This hadith issued at Tirmidhi." And he also said, "It has been said that Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari that the hadith of Muhammad bin Ishaq ash bin Abdullah bin Nawfal shalt this is a hasan hadeeth." Imam Muslim in his Saheeh from the hadeeth Thabit of Anas bin Malik said, "The Ring of the Prophet imposed here, he hinted to his left little finger." And An Nasai also issued a hadith like this. Adh Dhaya'i also issued hadith Qatada from Anas said, "That I see the white ring on his left finger Prophet." And the people in the sanad of this hadith can be used as arguments in keshahihanya. At Tirmidhi also issued hadith Abi Ja'far Muhammad from his father saying, "Hassan and Hussein wearing a ring on her left hand." And he says that this hadith authentic. (Aunul Ma'bud, it juz XI 210) From some of the above hadith history is obvious that there is a history which states that the Prophet wearing a ring on the little finger of his right, but there is also a history that says on his left little finger. The scholars differed in combining different hadiths are. There are among those who equate those two things, it means it can be worn on the ring finger right or left. But there are also those who say that at first the Prophet wearing a ring on his right hand, but then he saw move it to the left hand. As for the opinion of Imam Nawawi in Sharh Muslim states that ijma 'jurists allow the imposition of a ring on his right hand and left hand as well as allow it on the two are not dimakruhkan. They disagree about the most important because many of the scholars of the Salaf wear a ring on his right hand and many others on the left hand. Malik advocated to be worn on the left hand and right hand memakruhkan imposition. While in our schools (Shafi'i) that is the main right hand because he is an ornament while the right hand is more noble and more entitled to jewelry and glory. (Saheeh Muslim bi Syarhin Nawawi juz XIV case 102) At first the Prophet wearing a ring made of gold but after the imposition of the prohibition of gold for men throw it away and then he was no longer wearing a ring made of gold forever. As narrated from Abdullah that the Prophet never made a ring of gold and the ring is made of stone inside the palm of his hand. When he saw the man wearing it (at the time) made the (ring). Then he saw sitting onstage and let go as he said, "I am wearing this ring and make the stones inside the ring." Then he saw threw it and said, "By Allah I will not wear it forever." Then the man who witnessed the moment even throw their rings. "(HR. Muslim) Imam Bukhari hadith narrated from Anas bin Malik that the Prophet wearing a ring made of silver and carved ditasnya (writing) the Prophet Muhammad. And he saw says, 'I have carved thereon Prophet Muhammad, then let one of the carve (like carving Prophet Muhammad). Imam Nawawi said that the Muslims have agreed allowed to wear a ring of silver for the men, but some Ulama Sham was once memakruhkan imposition apart by people who have power, they mention an atsar atsar which is a bit strange and rejected. Al Khottobi said that makruh silver rings worn by women because it is a symbol of men. He said, "If a woman does not get a ring of gold then celuplah with yellow from turmeric or who like it." And his opinion was weak or no vanity has no foundation. The truth is not makruh for a woman wearing a ring of silver. (Saheeh Muslim bi Syarhin Nawawi juz XIV case 94).
Team Author: Pearls Lombok, Lombok Tour Packages, Open Trip Lombok - paket wisata lombok In chemistry, the precious metal is a metal that is resistant to corrosion and oxidation. Examples of precious metals are gold, silver and platinum. Generally, precious metals have a high price, because it is rare and corrosion resistance. Precious metals are very difficult to react with the acid. Even so, some precious metals (eg gold) may be dissolved in aqua regia, a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. All precious metals are members of the transition metal. The precious metal is used as jewelry and currency (gold, silver), rust-resistant material (steel) as a silver lining, or a catalyst (eg platinum). Precious Metals or commonly abbreviated as LM, also known as the trademark gold produced by PT ANTAM Tbk. tour lombok Silver is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. arms is derived from the Latin Argentum. A transition metal is soft, white, shiny, silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity across the contained metal and minerals and in free form. The metal used in coins, jewelry, tools table, and photography. Silver including precious metals like gold. Transition metals - paket wisata lombok Shape of the electron configuration of the transition metal atom can be written as  ns2 (n-1) dm where d subshell have a greater energy than the valence s subshell. In the ion with two and three valence electrons, the opposite is true with s subshell has a greater energy level. The impact, such as Fe 2+ ion has no electrons in the subshell s: ion has the electron configuration [Ar] 3d6 compared with the electron configuration of the Fe atom, namely [Ar] 4s23d6. Elements in group 3 to 12 are now generally known as transition metal element, although elements of the La-Lu, Ac-Lr, and the group 12 (formerly called IIB) has different definitions in different authors.Many chemistry textbooks and the periodic table that included La and Ac as a third group elements and transition metals including the group, because the atoms have the outer electron s2d1 such as Sc and Y. The elements of Ce-Lu inserted into the lanthanide row (or " lanthanoid "according to IUPAC and Th-Lr in actinide lines. These two lines are together classified in the f-block elements or (in the old books) as a" transition elements in ". paket tour lombok Several chemistry textbooks incorporate La into the lanthanide and actinide Ac into. This classification is based on the similarity of the chemical properties, and defines fifteen elements in each row into a block-f though they acknowledge that the block-f can only be filled by a 14 element only. mutiara lombok The third classification defines that the elements consist of a block-f La-Yb and Ac-No and put Lu and Lr in group 3. This is based on Aufbau rule (or rules Madelung) in charging subshell electrons, where 4f populated before 5d (or 5f before 6d), so that f subshell is fully charged to the element Yb (and No), while Lu (and Lr) having the configuration  s2f14d1. Nonetheless, La and Ac is an exception to the rule Aufbau with electron configuration  s2d1 (not  s2f1 as a prediction rule Aufbau) so that it is uncertain of its electron configuration is La or Lu (Ac or Bn) should be classified in a transition metal. Characteristics and properties harga mutiara There are several characteristics shared by transition elements that are not owned by other elements, which are caused by being filled in part of the subshell d. Among others are: formation of compounds whose color is caused by the transition of electrons the formation of compounds with a lot of oxidation numbers, due to the relatively low reactivity of the electron is unpaired d subshell the formation of several paramagnetic compounds caused by the d subshell electrons unpaired. Some compounds of main group elements are also paramagnetic (such as nitrogen oxide and oxygen). Colored compounds - harga mutiara Color in transition metal-containing compounds are generally caused by the transition of electrons in two types: charge transfer complex. An electron can jump from orbit to orbit ligand metal, forming ligant to metal charge transfer (LMCT). It can be seen easily when metal was in high oxidation numbers. For example, the color of the chromate ion, dichromate, and permanganate are of this type. Other conton is the mercury (II) iodide red larena LMCT transition. Transition metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) occurs when metal in a low oxidation number so easily reduced ligands. d-d transition. An electron hopping dadi one orbit d orbit to another. In the complex transition metal compounds, antarorbit d not have the same energy level. Pattern separation d orbit can be calculated with the crystal field theory. The degree of separation depends on the type of metal, the oxidation number, and the nature of the ligand. Actual energy level shown by Tanabe-Sugano diagram. paket wisata lombok In the centrosymmetric complex, such as octahedral, dd transitions violating the rules Laporte and only happened because the merger vibronik where molecular vibrations coincides with the transition dd. Tetrahedral complex has a pretty bright color due to a combination subshell d and p is possible if there is no center of symmetry, so that the transition is not purely dd. Oxidation number - lombok tour One characteristic of the transition metal is where these elements have more than one oxidation number. For example, the vanadium compounds are known to have begun -1 oxidation number of V (CO) 6- to +5 on VO43-. The maximum oxidation number in the first row transition metals equal to the number of valence electrons such as titanium (+4), and manganese (+7) but reduced in subsequent elements. In the second and third row there are ruthenium and osmium oxidation numbers +8. On compounds such as [Mn04] - and OsO4, transition metal elements to obtain a stable octet by forming four covalent bonds. The oxidation number is lowest in the compound Cr (CO) 6 (oxidation number zero) and Fe (CO) 42- (oxidation number -2) where the rule of 18 electrons obeyed. The compound is also a covalent. Ionic bonds are usually formed in the oxidation state +2 or +3. In the compound dissolved, the ions are usually bound with six water molecules are arranged in an octahedral. Magnetism - mutiara lombok Compounds in paramagnetic transition metal usually when there are one or more unpaired electrons in the subshell d. In the octahedral compound with electrons between four to seven in the d subshell, high spin and low spin may occur. Tetrahedral compounds such as [FeCl4] 2- is high spin crystal field splitting due to low so that the energy obtained from the electrons that are at a lower energy level is always less than the energy required to pair spin. Some compounds are diamagnetic. Which belong to this group is octahedral compound, low spin, d6, and d8 rectangular planar. Ferromagnetism occurs if a single atom is paramagnetic and the spin direction are arranged parallel to each other in crystalline materials. Ferrous metals and mixtures alniko are examples of transition metal compounds that are ferromagnetic. Anti-ferromagnetism is an example of magnetic properties formed from a special arrangement of a single spin in solid objects. Catalytic properties - harga mutiara Transition metals and their compounds are known to have catalytic activity of homogeneous and heterogeneous nature. This activity comes from the ability of transition metals to have more than one oxidation number and the ability to form complex compounds. For example Vanadium (V) oxide is known to separate the iron (the Haber process) and nickel (catalytic hydrogenation). The catalyst on the surface of a solid field to include the formation of a bond between the reactant molecules and atoms at the surface of the catalyst. This has the effect of increasing concentrations of the reactants on the catalyst surface and weakens the bond in a molecule that reacts (lowering the activation energy of the reaction). And also because of the transition metal oxidation number can change, so effective as a catalyst. Other properties - perhiasan mutiara As the name implies, all transition metal is a metal and an electrical conductor. In general, transition metals have a high density and melting and boiling points higher. It is due to the bonding of metal with electrons move easily, which causes cohesion which increases the amount of shared electrons. Nevertheless, the metal bracket 12 having a boiling point and lower melting Titih because subshell d elements to prevent bond dd. Mercury has a melting point -38.83 ° C (-37.89 ° F) and is liquid at room temperature. Transition metals can bind to form a variety of ligands. open trip lombok
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paket wisata lombok Team Author: Pearls Lombok, Lombok Tour Packages, Open Trip Lombok Rhodium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. Symbols: Rh Electron configuration: Kr 4d8 5s1 Atomic number: 45 Melting point: 1963 ° C Year found: 1803 Inventor: William Hyde Wollaston Atomic mass: 102.9055 ± 0.00002 u Is it Rhodium plating? tour lombok Rhodium plating is a common procedure used by jewelers to improve scratch resistance surface while providing a brilliant reflective appearance. But why the rhodium? Under what circumstances this procedure is used, and what consumers should know about the costs, the average age of treatment, and rhodium itself? Read on and find everything you never knew you wanted to know about rhodium plating. Features Rhodium, atomic number 45 on the periodic table, is a rare metal that is silvery-white. Rhodium is 10 times more expensive than gold, which raises the question why the rhodium plating is used only for not as the base metal for jewelry. The answer lies in another prominent characteristic of the element - the fact that it is very fragile. Purpose - paket wisata lombok The most common purpose of rhodium plating is to improve a piece of jewelry "white" gold to improve the coloring and provide an extra layer of protection against damage. Reason rhodium is often paired with simple white gold: white gold does not exist in reality. White gold is nothing more than the gold is mixed with other metals which have a white cast (usually silver, palladium or nickel). This produces a slight yellow color to the final product. As white gold buyer is looking for a bright sheen, rhodium is used as a coating material to add that extra shine. Benefit However, apart from its coveted reflectiveness, rhodium has protective properties that make it functionally useful as metal plating. Rhodium will never discolor or tarnish. In addition, the metal is harder than gold, which means more scratch-resistant and better able to withstand the rigors of everyday wear. Rhodium is also sometimes used on silver (especially for its scratch resistant properties) and platinum (to increase shine). Weakness / Warning - paket tour lombok One drawback of the rhodium plating is that it will not last forever. The metal will eventually wear away and require replating. The lifespan for rhodium plating varies, but is dependent on a number of factors, including the ultimate use of the section (often used to increase wear, as will contact with elements or contact with the skin), and the thickness of the original coating. It is a good idea to consider spending the extra to get a thick coating on the pieces used every day. Conclusion - mutiara lombok Before buying silver, platinum or white gold jewelry, ask if he has a rhodium coating to enable an accurate estimate of the cost of ownership, taking into consideration the need for replating. While it may be a surprise to learn color and shine that coveted piece of white gold jewelry is actually worth rhodium, better to understand the fact that now instead of learning it for the first time in a jewelry store, where knowledge will undoubtedly be accompanied by a bill for replating. harga mutiara
paket wisata lombok Copper is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. arms is derived from the Latin Cuprum.Tembaga conductors of heat and electricity. Besides these elements have rapid corrosion once. Its pure copper smooth and soft, with a reddish orange surface. Copper mixed with tin to make bronze. These metals and aloinya (mixture) has been used for four centuries. In the Roman era, copper is generally mined in Cyprus, which is also the origin of the name of this metal (сyprium, metal Cyprus, later shortened so сuprum). Bonding of the metal is usually named with copper. tour lombok Copper ions can be dragged into the water, where they function in high concentrations is as an anti-bacterial agent, fungisi, and additional material wood. In high concentrations, the copper would be toxic, but a small amount of copper is an essential nutrient for human life and plant a low level. In the body, copper is usually found in the liver, brain, colon, heart, and kidneys. paket wisata lombok Copper synthesized in massive stars and is in the crust with a concentration of 50 parts per million (ppm), or may also be in the form of native copper or copper sulfide minerals in the form of chalcopyrite and chalcocite, azurite and copper carbonate mineral Malachite and copper oxide copper kuprit.Massa pure mass ever found 420 tons, was found in 1857 in the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, USA. Native copper are polycrystalline, with the largest known crystal measuring 4.4 × 3.2 × 3.2 cm. Chemistry - paket tour lombok Copper does not react with water, but he reacts slowly with oxygen from the air to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide. In contrast to the iron oxidation by air, the oxide layer is then stop the corrosion continues. A layer of verdigris (copper carbonate) green can be seen in constructions of the old aged copper, such as the Statue of Liberty] Copper reacts with sulfide to form copper sulfide. Isotope Main article: Isotopes of copper Copper has 29 isotopes. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable isotopes, with the highest percentage of 63Cu is in nature, around 69%. Both of these isotopes have a number of spin 3/2. Other isotopes are radioactive, the most stable is 67Cu with a part-time 61.83 hours. Seven metastable isotopes have been identified, 68mCu is the isotope with the longest half-time, 3.8 minutes. Isotope with mass number above 64 may decays by β-, while for mass numbers below 64 decays by β +. 64Cu (part time 12.7 hours), decays in both ways. Binary compounds - mutiara lombok As with other elements, the most simple copper compounds are binary compounds (composed of two elements only). The most important such binary oxides, sulfides, and halides. Copper (I) oxide, copper (II) oxide, copper (I) sulfide, and copper monosulfida is an example of a binary copper compounds. For a halide compound, which is known among the copper (I) chloride, copper (I) bromide, and copper (I) iodide, also copper (II) fluoride, copper (II) chloride and copper (II) bromide. Experiments made of copper (II) iodide it produces copper iodide and iodine: 2 Cu 2+ + 4 I- → 2 CuI + I2 Physical - harga mutiara Copper, silver, and gold is at 11 group elements in the periodic table and have the same properties: have one orbital electron-atom d s skin with good electrical conductivity properties.Malleability copper can be explained by the high electrical conductivity (59.6 × 106 S / m) and therefore also has a high thermal conductivity (second highest) among all pure metals at room temperature.Together with cesium and gold (both yellow) and osmium (bluish), copper is one of four metal with the original colors other than gray or silver. Pure copper is red-orange and to red when in contact with air. harga mutiara Chuquicamata in Chile is one of the largest open copper mine in the world. Most copper is mined or extracted in the form of an open pit copper sulphide or deposit. Examples of existing mines, among others, Chuquicamata in Chile, Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah, and El Chino Mine in New Mexico, USA. According to the British Geological Survey in 2005, Chile is the largest copper producer in the world and controlled a third of the world market, followed by the United States, Indonesia, and Peru. Copper can also be obtained by in-situ leaching process. Some mining area in Arizona using this method. Method - paket wisata lombok The main article for this section are: copper extraction technique The concentration of copper in ores that there is an average of only 0.6%, most of the existing commercial ore is sulphide such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) or chalcocite (Cu2S). This mineral concentration increased up to 10-15% copper with Froth flotation or bioleaching process. Heating this material with silica in flash smelting will release the content of iron and iron sulfide transform into oxide. Compound product consisting of copper matte Cu2S then baked to transform sulphide into oxide 2 Cu2S + 3 O2 → 2 Cu2O + 2 SO2 Cupric oxide is then heated: 2 Cu2O → 4 Cu + O2 Matte process converts only half sulphide into oxide and then eliminate all sulfur into oxides. This process will transform the copper oxide to metallic copper. Natural gas is then supplied to remove oxygen (electrorefining process) and then change into a pure copper material. Reserve - lombok tour Copper has been used since 10,000 years ago, but more than 96% of the number of newly mined copper extracted after 1900. Reserves on Earth is still very large (approximately 1014 tons), or enough for 5 million years at current extraction speed. Even so, only a small portion of the economic value of this amount, with the technology and the current selling price. Some estimates say that the existing reserves only enough for 25 to 60 years, depending on how large an increase in its use. Recycling copper is one of the main sources. Copper prices are also unstable, for example, from a price of US $ 0.60 / lb (US $ 1.32 / kg) in June 1999 to US $ 3.75 / lb (US $ 8.27 / kg) in May 2006. In February 2007, the price dropped again to US $ 2.40 / lb (US $ 5.29 / kg) and go up to US $ 3.50 / lb (US $ 7.71 / kg) in April of the same year. In February 2009, weakened global demand and falling commodity prices makes the copper price is around US $ 1.51 / lb. Recycling - mutiara lombok Copper, such as aluminum, can be recycled 100% without reducing quality. Judging from the volume, metal copper is the third most widely recycled, after iron and aluminum. It is estimated that 80% of all copper ever mined is still in use today. According to the International Resource Panel, global per capita copper consumption is around 35-55 kg. The biggest users are the developed countries (140-300 kg per capita), while in developing countries about 30-40 kg per capita. The recycling process is generally the same as the copper extraction process, but the process is much less. Former copper with high purity melted in the furnace and then reduced and reshaped into billets and ingots; whereas the former copper with a purity lower reprocessed by electroplating in sulfuric acid. Assorted copper fittings The biggest use of copper for electrical wiring (60%), roofing and piping (20%) and industrial machinery (15%). Copper is usually used in the form of pure metal, but when it takes a higher level of violence it is usually mixed with other elements to form the alloy. A small portion of copper is also used as a nutritional supplement and fungicides in agriculture. Wire and copper cable - harga mutiara Despite competing with other materials, copper remains selected as the primary electrical conductor in almost all categories except electrical wire in the electric power transmission in which aluminum is preferred. Copper wire is used for power generation, power transmission, power distribution, telecommunications, electronic circuits, and various other electrical appliances. perhiasan mutiara Electrical wire is the most important market for the copper industry. This includes the building wiring, telecommunications cables, power distribution cables, automotive wires, magnet wires, etc. Half of the amount of copper that is mined is used to make electrical wire and cable conductors. Many electrical appliance using copper wire because it has a high electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, can be soldered, and easy to install. open trip lombok